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Main Page: Titles of European hereditary rulers


Last updated: Oct 9, 2010



France



Overview.

In the 5th century, the Franks led by their kings of the Merovingian House, took control of the former Roman province of Gaul which gradually the country became known as France.
In the 6th-7th centuries, the Merovingian kings divided the country among the members of their House.

By the end of the 7th century, the Kingdom of the Franks was united, but the real power passed from the Kings to the "Mayors of the Palace" of the family which would be known as Carolingians

In 751, Pepin "the Short", a Caroling and Mayor of the Palace (Maiordomus), overthrew the last Merovingian King and took the Crown for himself.

In 800, Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne, King of the Franks, was declared Emperor by Pope Leo III. This action was considered as the restoration of the Roman Empire; the kingdom of the Franks became a part of the Carolingian Empire.

The Kingdom of France (the Western Frankish Kingdom) appeared as the result of divisions of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century.

In 1792, the French Monarchy was abolished, and France was declared Republic (the First Republic).

In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte, the head of the French Republic, was proclaimed Emperor of the French. The new monarchy (the First Empire) in France existed in 1804-1814 and for a short period in 1815.
In 1814, France was declared Kingdom again.

In 1848, France was declared Republic (the Second Republic).

In 1852, France was declared Empire (the Second Empire).

In 1870, France was declared Republic (the Third Republic).






Bibliography.

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8. Urseau, Charles. Cartulaire Noir de la Cathédrale d’Angers (1908).
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32. Rymer, Thomas; Holmes, George. Foedera, conventions, litterae, et cujuscumque generic acta publica inter reges Angliae et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices, principes, vel communitates. 1101-1654 (London : Tonson, 1727-1729; 2nd ed., 17 vols).
33. Menjot d'Elbenne, Samuel. Cartulaire du chapitre royal de Saint-Pierre-de-la-Cour du Mans [Société historique de la province du Maine].
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36. (Dom) Calmet, Augustin. Histoire de Lorraine: qui comprend ce qui s'est passé de plus mémorable dans l'Archevêché de Tréves, & dans les Evêchés de Metz, Toul et Verdun ... (Nancy : A. Leseure, 1745-1757).
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40. Douët-d'Arcq, Louis-Claude. Chroniques d'Enguerrand de Monstrelet (Paris : 1861-).
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44. Schrader, Wilhelm. Geschichte der Friedrichs-Universität zu Halle (Berlin : Ferd. Dümmlers, 1894).
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46.Bruguier-Roure, L. Cartulaire de l'œuvre des église, maison, pont et hôpitaux du Saint-Esprit, 1265-1791 (Nîmes : 1889-) [Mémoires de l'Académie de Nîmes , VII série, tome XII-; année 1889-].
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48. Saint-Allais, Nicolas Viton de. Nobiliaire universel de France, ou Recueil general des genealogies historiques des maisons nobles de ce royaume (Paris : Bachelin-Deflorenne, 1872-).
49. Willems, Jan Frans. Belgisch museum voor de Nederduitsche tael- en letterkunde en de geschiedenis des vaderlands (Te Gent : 1837).
50. Martens, Georges Frédéric de. Recueil de traités d’alliance, de paix, de trêve, de neutralité, de commerce, de limites, d’échange, etc., et plusieurs autres actes servant à la connaissance des relations étrangères des puissances et États de l’Europe tant dans leur rapport mutuel que dans celui envers les puissances et États dans d’autres parties du globe, depuis 1761 jusqu’à présent (Gottingue : Dieterich, 1817-1835; 8 vols; 2e éd. revue et augmentée).
51. Labanoff, Alexandre (Prince). Lettres, instructions et memoires de Marie Stuart, reine d'Ecosse (Londres : C. Dolman; 7 vols).
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53. Augier, (Seigneur) de la Terraudiere, Christophile. Thrésor des titres justificatifs des priviléges et immunitez, droits et revenus de la ville de Nyort (Nyort : 1866; 2e édition).
54. Brette, Armand. Recueil de documents relatifs à la convocation des États Généraux de 1789 (Paris : Imprimerie nationale, 1894-).
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58. Angeberg, Comte d' (Léonard Chodzko). Recueil des Traités, Conventions et actes diplomatiques concernant l'Autriche et l'Italie (Paris : Amyot, 1859).
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60. Mémoires de la Société historique, littéraire et scientifique du Cher (Bourges & Paris).
61. Boislisle, Arthur de. Notice biographique et historique sur Etienne de Vesc, sénéchal de Beaucaire (Paris : 1884).
62. Négotiations Diplomatiques de la France avec la Toscane (1859 -).
63. Ordonnances des rois de France de la troisième race (Paris : 1723-1850).
64. Leonard, Frédéric. Recueil des traitez de paix, de trêve, de neutralité, de confédération, d'alliance, et de commerce ... (Paris : 1693).
65. Archiv für Kunde österreichischer Geschichts-Quellen (Wien).
66. Mu?ller, Joseph. Raccolta di cronisti e documenti storiei lombardi inediti (Milano : F. Colombo, 1856-).
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70. Atti della Società ligure di storia patria (Genova).
71. Pastor, Ludwig. The History of the Popes, from the close of the Middle Ages (London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner).
72. Annales ecclesiastici denuo excusi.
73. Wegener, Caspar Frederik. Aarsberetninger fra det kongelige Geheimearchiv (Kjobenhavn : 1852-).
74. Mémoires de la Sociéte archéologique de l'Orléanais (Orléan & Paris).
75. Soultrait, Jacques Hyacinthe Georges Richard (Comte) de. Inventaire des titres de Nevers de l'abbé de Marolles (Nevers : 1873).





Notes:
1. Since the 13th century, the Kings of France when married to women, who were territorial rulers of their own rights, did not use their titles in the French documents (e.g., Philip IV, Philip V, Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I, Francis II). However, in documents issued for their wives' territories the Kings of France could use their titles. For example, Philip IV was named King of Navarra, Louis XII, Francis I were named Dukes of Brittany, Francis II was named King of Scotland.



Chistian (First) names.

Charles -> Carolus;
Francis -> Franciscus; François;
Guntram -> Gontran;
Hugh -> Hugo; Hugues;
John -> Johannes; Jean;
Louis / Chlovis -> Ludovicus / Hludovicus; Ludwig / Chlodwig;
Odo -> Eudes;
Rudolf -> Ralph; Raoul;
Theodoric -> Thierry; Dietrich;






Geographical names.

Aquitaine -> Aquitania (in SW France);
The Franks -> Francorum;
Milan -> Mediolarum; Milano (in N Italy);
Poland -> Polonia; Pologne, Polska;






The Kingdom of the Franks

--- the 5th century-774

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(Jan 515) [17: Doc.# 1]
< Childebert I (+558), King the Franks 511 >
Childebertus rex Francorum

(Dec 558) [38: tome 1; p.3; Doc.# 2]
Childebertus, rex Francorum

< Chilperich I (+584), King the Franks 561 >

(Nov 585) [24: p.10-11; Doc.# 5]
< Guntram "the Saint" (+592), King of the Franks 561 >
Gunthramnus rex Francorum

(Feb 596) [24: p.15; Doc.# 7]
< Childebert II (+596), King of the Franks 575 >
Childebertus rex Francorum

(625) [38: tome 1; p.9; Doc.# 5]
< Chlothar II (+629), King the Franks 584 >
Chlotharius rex Francorum

(June 653) [38: tome 1; p.15; Doc.# 11]
< Chlovis / Louis II (+657), King the Franks 639 >
Chlodovius rex Francorum

< Theodoric III (+691), King the Franks 673 >

(Sep 693) [17: p.8; Doc.# 5]
< Chlovis III (+695), King of the Franks >
Chlodoveus rex Francorum

(Feb 703) [38: tome 1; p.22; Doc.# 15]
< Childebert III (+711), King of the Franks >
Childeberthus, rex Francorum

< Dagobert III (+715), King of the Franks 711 >

(Feb 717) [38: tome 1; p.24; Doc.# 17]
< Chilperic II (+721), King of Neustria 715, all the Franks 718 >
Chilperichus, rex Francorum

(July 753) [38: tome 1; p.26; Doc.# 20]
< Pipin“the Short" (+768), King of the Franks 751 >
Pippinus, rex Francorum

(Feb 774) [17: p.16; Doc.# 10]
< Charles “the Great” / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus gratiae Dei rex Francorum

@ Samples [Regents]:

(Apr 742) [24: Doc.# 10]
< Carloman (+755), Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia [741-747] >
Ego Karlmannus, dux et princeps Francorum

(Mar 744) [24: p.28-29; Doc.# 12]
< Pipin "the Short" (+768), Mayor of the Palace in Neustria, Provence & Burgundy [741-751], King of the Franks 751 >
ego Pippinus, dux et princeps Francorum






--- 774-800 ( Charles I "the Great" / Charlemagne )

King of the Franks, the Langobards;

@ Added:

- the Langobards
Charles I / Charlemagne conquered the Kingdom of the Langobards in Italy (774).

@ Samples:

(Nov 775) [16: tome 1; p.1; Doc.# 1]
< Charles “the Great” / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus, gratia Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum ac
patricius Romanorum

(Mar 779) [38: tome 1; p.33; Doc.# 25]
Carolus, gratia Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum atque
patricius Romanorum









The Carolingian Empire (800-887)

Notes:
1. On Christmas Day 800, Charles “the Great” / Charlemagne (+814), was declared Emperor by Pope Leo III. This was considered as the restoration of the Roman Empire. France (the Kingdom of the Franks) became a part of the Empire.


--- 800-814 ( Charles I "the Great" / Charlemagne )

Emperor governing the Roman Empire;
King of the Franks, the Langobards;

@ Samples:

(Feb 806) [24: p.126; Doc.# 45]
< Charles “the Great” / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum atque Langobardorum

(Apr 812) [24: p.169; Doc.# 76]
Karolus, serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum






--- 814-843

Emperor;

@ Removed:

- [814] the Roman Empire, the Franks, the Langobards
Emperor Louis I “the Fair” (+840) changed the Imperial title to affirm the unity of the Empire (814) [23: p.146].

@ Samples:

(Aug 814) [17: p.21; Doc.# 13]
< Louis I "the Fair" (+840), Emperor 814 >
Hludovicus divina ordinante clementia imperator augustus

(May 825) [17: p.23; Doc.# 14]
Hludovicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(829) [8: p.8; Doc. # III]
< Louis I “the Fair” (+840) with Lothar I (+855), Co-Emperor 817, Emperor 840 >
Hludovicus et Hlotharius, divina ordinante providentia imperatores augusti

(Oct 833) [9: p.122; Doc. # 5]
Ludowicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus






--- 875-887

Notes:
1. In 875, after the death of Emperor Louis II, Charles "the Bald", supported by Pope John VIII, descended into Italy, receiving the Imperial Crown at Rome.
2. In 884, after King Carloman's death, Emperor Charles III "the Fat" / “le Gros” (+888) added the Kingdom of the Western Franks to his possessions. It was the last time the Western Frankish (France) and Eastern Frankish (Germany) Kingdoms were united under the same ruler. When, in 887, his power collapsed he was succeeded in France by Odo / Eudes, Count of Paris, and by his nephew Arnulf in Germany. Since 887 the Western Franks (the French) did not recognize any Emperor of the (Holy) Roman Empireas their overlord.

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Oct 876) [16: tome 1; p.13; Doc.# 11]
< Charles "the Bald / le Chauve” (+877), King of the West Franks 843; Emperor 875 >
Karolus, ejusdem Dei omnipotensis misericordia omnipotenis imperator augustus

(Oct 886) [8: p.34-35; Doc. # XIV]
< Charles III “the Fat / le Gros” (+888), King in Swabia 876; Emperor 881 >
Karolus ejusdem Dei misericordia omnipotenis imperator augustus









The Kingdom of France ( 843-1792 )

Notes:
1. The Empire was not monolithic, its different parts were given to the members of the House of Charlemagne, who bore the title of King and recognized suzerainty of Emperors.
2. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun gave Charles "the Bald" (+877) the Kingdom of the Western Franks (France).


--- 843-916

@ Samples:

(Feb 844) [8: p.10-11; Doc. # IV]
< Charles "the Bald" / “le Chauve” (+877), King of the West Franks 843; Emperor 875 >
Karolus Dei gratia rex

(Apr 878) [38: tome 1; p.69; Doc.# 51]
< Louis II "the Stammerer / le Bègue" (+879), King the West Franks 855/877 >
Hludovicus, misericordia Dei rex

(June 882) [19: p.20; Doc. # VIII]
< Carloman (+884), Kings of the West Franks >
Karlomannus, gratia Dei, rex

(June 889) [19: p.28; Doc. # XII]
< Odo (+898), King of the West Franks 888 >
Odo, misericordia Dei, rex

(June 911) [38: tome 1; p.80; Doc.# 59]
< Charles III "the Simple" (+929), King of the West Franks 893 >
Karolus, divina propitiante clementia, rex

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(before 888) [38: tome 1; p.70; Doc.# 52]
< Odo (+898), King of the West Franks 888 >
ego, in Dei nomine, Odo, Parisiorum pagi humillimus comes






--- 916-923

King of the Franks;

@ Added:

- the Franks

@ Samples:

(Oct 918) [38: tome 1; p.83; Doc.# 61]
< Charles III "the Simple" (+929), King of France 893 >
Carolus, divina propitiante clementia, rex Francorum

(Mar 919) [25: p.54; Doc.# 26]
Karolus, divina propitiante clementia rex Francorum

(Sep 921) [9: p.239; Doc. # 137]
Karolus, divina propitiante Clementia rex Francorum






--- 923-936 ( Rudolf of Burgundy )

King of the Franks, the Aquitainians, the Burgundians;

@ Added:

- the Burgundians
Ralph / Rudolf / Raoul (+936), Duke of Burgundy, was elected King of France (923).

- the Aquitainians

@ Samples:

(Dec 933) [22: p.36; Doc. # 15]
< Rudolf (+936), Duke of Burgundy; King of France 923 >
Rodulfus Dei gratia Francorum et Aquitanorum atque Burgundiorum rex

(Sep 935) [22: p.325; Doc. # 598]
ego Rodulphus gratia Dei Francorum, Aquitanorum et Burgondiorum rex






--- 936-1137

King of the Franks;

@ Removed:

- the Burgundians, the Aquitainians

@ Samples:

(Apr 944) [22: p.38; Doc. # 16]
< Louis IV "from Overseas / d'Outre Mer" (+954), King of of France 936 >
Ludovicus divina clementia Francorum rex

(980) [9: p.142; Doc. # 17]
< Lothar IV (+986), King of France 954 >
Lotharius, divina propitiante clementia Francorum rex

(987) [4: tome 1; p.96; Doc. # 4]
< Hugh (+996), King of France 987 >
Hugo, Dei gratiâ, Francorum rex

(Jan 1008) [38: tome 1; p.107; Doc.# 78]
< Robert II "the Pious" (+1031) ,Co-King 987, King of France 996 >
Robertus, divina ordinante clementia rex Francorum semper augustus

(1031) [4: tome 1; p.101; Doc. # 13]
< Henry I (+1060), Co-King 1025, King of France 1031 >
ego Henricus Dei clementiâ, Francorum rex

(Feb 1101) [38: tome 1; p.152; Doc.# 129]
< Philip I (+1108) Co-King 1059, King of France 1060 >
ego Philippus, Dei gratia Francorum rex

(1137) [4: tome 1; p.145; Doc. # 36]
< Louis VI "the Fat / le Gros" (+1137) ,Co-King 1101, King of France 1108 >
Ludovicus, Dei gratiâ, Francorum rex






--- 1137-1152 ( Louis VII )

King of the Franks;
Duke of the Aquitainians;

@ Added:

- [1137] the Aquitainians;
Louis (VII) (+1180), the first husband of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, succeeded his father Louis VI in France (Aug 1137).

@ Samples:

(1137) [38: tome 1; p.261; Doc.# 265]
< Louis VII (+1180), Co-King 1101, King of France Aug 1137; ~ July 1137 Eleanor / Alienor (+1204), Duchesses of Aquitaine >
ego Ludovicus, Dei gratia, rex Francorum et
dux Aquitanorum

(1140) [16: tome 1; p.51; Doc.# 72]
Ego itaque Ludovicus Dei gratia Francorum rex et
dux Aquitanorum

(1151) [4: tome 1; p.149; Doc. # 44]
Ludovicus, Dei gratiâ, Francorum rex, et
dux Acquitanorum

(1154) [38: tome 1; p.340; Doc.# 385]
Ego Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum rex et
dux Aquitanorum






--- 1152-1314

King of the Franks / France;

@ Removed:

- the Aquitainians;
King Louis VII (+1180) divorced his the first wife of Eleanor, Duchesses of Aquitaine (1152).

@ Samples:

(1155) [4: tome 1; p.152; Doc. # 47]
< Louis VII (+1180), Co-King 1101, King of France 1137 >
Ego Ludovicus, Dei gratiâ, Francorum rex

(Apr 1198) [4: tome 1; p.187; Doc. # 94]
< Philip II "the Augustus" (+1223), Co-King 1179, King of France 1180 >
Philippus, Dei gratiâ, Francorum rex

(Aug 1223) [16: tome 2; p.10; Doc.# 1596]
< Louis VIII (+1226), King of France 1223 (the first Capetian who was not made co-king by his father) >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francie rex

(July 1246) [16: tome 2; p.630; Doc.# 3534]
< Louis IX "the Saint" (+1270), King of France 1226 >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francie rex

(Apr 1273) [18: tome 3; p.122]
< Philip III "the Bold / le Hardi" (+1285), King of France 1270 >
Philippus Dei gratia Francorum rex

(1308) [4: tome 2; p.864]
< Philip IV "the Fair / le Bel" (+1314), King of France 1285 >
Philippe, par la grace de Dieu Roys de France






--- 1314-1328

-- the French form

King of France, Navarra;

@ Added:

- [1314] Navarra
Louis "le Hutin", King of Navarra, succeeded his father Philip IV in France (1314).

@ Samples:

(July 1315) [4: tome 3; p.116]
< Louis X "the Quarreller / le Hutin" (+1316), King of Navarra & Count Palatin of Champagne, etc. 1305; King of France 1314 >
Loys, par la grace de Dieu Roys de France et de Navarre

< John I "the Posthumous" (born Nov 15, 1316, +Nov 20, 1316), King of France & Navarra 1316 >

(Apr 1316) [4: tome 3; p.154]
< Philip V "the Long" (+1322), King of France & Navarra 1316 >
Philippe, par la grace de Dieu Rois de France et de Navarre

(Jan 1326, n.s.) [45: partie I; p.75; Doc.# LXXIX]
< Charles IV "the Fair / le Bel" (+1328), King of France & Navarra 1322 >
Charles, par la grace de Dieu, Roy de France et de Navarre



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks, Navarra;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1316, n.s.) [18: tome 3; p.377]
< Louis X "the Quarreller / le Hutin" (+1316), King of Navarra & Count Palatin of Champagne, etc. 1305; King of France 1314 >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum et Navarre rex

(May 1317) [31: tome 11; p.151; Doc.# LX]
< Philip V "le Long" (+1322), King of France & Navarra 1316 >
Philippus, Dei gratia Francorum et Navarre rex

(Dec 1327) [31: tome 11; p.302; Doc.# CXXXVI]
< Charles IV "the Fair / le Bel" (+1328), King of France & Navarra 1322 >
Karolus, Dei gratia, Francorum et Navarre rex

@ Samples [Regents]:

(Mar 1328, n.s.) [15: tome 1; p.729; Doc.# CCCCLXVII]
< Philip (+1350), Count of Valois, Anjou, etc.; Regent of France in 1328; King of France (Philip VI) >
Philippus, Valesii et Andegavensis comes,
Francie et Navarre regna regens






--- 1328-1494

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Removed:

- [1328] Navarra
The union with Navarra ended with the death of King Charles IV: France passed to his cousin Philip (+1350), Count of Valois, Anjou, etc., Navarra passed to his niece Joan, the daughter of his late brother King Louis X "le Hutin" (1328).

@ Samples:

(Aug 1335) [31: tome 13; p.124; Doc.# CCXLVI]
< Philip VI (+1350), King of France 1328 >
Philippe, par la grace de Dieu, roys de France

(1365) [17: p.64; Doc.# 31]
< Charles V (+1380), King of France 1364 >
Charles par la grâce de Dieu, Roy de France

(Aug 1381) [18: p.485]
< Charles VI (+1422), King of France 1380 >
Charles par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France

(Mar 1422, n.s.) [32: volume 10; p.191]
< Charles VII (+1461), King of France 1422 >
Charles, par la Grace de Dieu, Roy de France

(Feb 1462, n.s.) [31: tome 35; p.330; Doc.# MCCCLIX]
< Louis XI (+1483), King of France 1461 >
Loys, par la grace de Dieu roy de France



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(June 1328) [31: tome 11; p.307; Doc.# CXXXVII]
< Philip VI (+1350), King of France 1328 >
Philippus, Dei gratia Francorum rex

(Nov 1350) [31: tome 17; p.33; Doc.# CCCLVIII]
< John II (+1364), King of France 1350 >
Johannes, Dei gratia, Francorum rex

(June 1401) [32: volume 8; p.198]
< Charles VI (+1422), King of France 1380 >
Karolus, Dei gratiâ Francorum Rex

(Apr 1459) [31: tome 35; p.109; Doc.# MCCCIII]
< Charles VII (+1461), King of France 1422 >
Karolus, Dei gracia Francorum rex

(Dec 1492) [32: volume 12; p.508]
< Charles VIII (+1498), King of France 1483, of Naples 1495 >
Karolus, Dei gratiâ Francorum Rex

@ Samples [Regents]:

(Nov 1356) [31: tome 17; p.236; Doc.# CCCCIX]
< Charles V (+1380), Dolphin of Viennois; Duke of Normandy; Regent; King of France 1364 >
Karolus, regis Francorum primogenitus ipsiuque locum tenens,
dux Normandie et
delphinus Viennensis

(May 1358) [4: tome 3; p.473]
Charles, ainsné filz du roy de France,
régent le royaume,
duc de Normandie et
dophin de Viennois

(June 1420) [32: volume 9; p.920]
< Henry (+1422), King of France [1413-1420]; Regent of France [1420-1422]; King of England (Henry V)1422 >
Henry, par la Grace de Dieu, Roy d'Engleterre,
Heretier & Regent du Royaulme de France, &
Seigneur d'Irlande

(Mar 1422) [32: volume 10; p.194]
Henry, par la Grace de Dieu, Roy d'Engleterre,
Heretier & Regent du Royalme de France, &
Seigneur d'Irlande

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(July 1440) [32: volume 10; p.794]
< Louis XI (+1483), Dolphin of Viennois; King of France 1461 >
Loys, Filz du Roy de France,
Daulphin de Viennois






>>> --- 1340-1360 ( Edward [ III in England ] )

Notes:

1. King Edward III, a maternal grandson of Philip IV's, King of France, advanced claims to the Crown of France. In 1340, Edward III entered Flanders, a fief of Franch Crown, where he was proclaimed King of France. The local authorities took oaths to Edward III as their King. After the pro-French Count of Flanders returned to power in his County, Edward III was recognized as King of France only in his possessions in Gascogne, in the conquered city of Calais, and by the Montfortist faction in Brittany.
2. In 1360, King Edward III dropped his claims to the Crown of France, and John II, King of France, ceded him sovereignty over Aquitaine and Poitou by the Treaty of Brétigny.

King of France, England;
Lord of Ireland;

@ Samples:

(Nov 1340) [49: deel 4; p.370; Doc.# IV]
< Edward (+1377), King of France [1340-1360; 1369-1377]; of England (Edward III) 1327 >
Edward, par la grace de Dieu, roi de France et d'Engleterre et
seigneur d'Irlande

(Mar 1347) [49: deel 4; p.377; Doc.# VIII]
Edward, par la grace de Dieu roi de FFrance et d'Engleterre et
seigneur d'Irlande

(May 1351) [39: volume 3; p.219]
Nous, Edward, par la grace de Dieu, Rois de France & d'Engleterre, &
seignur d'Irlaunde

(June 1359) [32: volume 6; p.126]
Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Franciæ & Angliæ, &
Dominus Hiberniæ






>>> --- 1369-1420 ( the English claimants )

Notes:

1. In 1369, Edward III, King of England, resumed the title of King of France after what he considered breaches of the Treaty of Brétigny by the French.
Until 1415 in France the Kings of England controlled Gascogne and the city of Calais.
2. In 1415, Henry V, King of England, invaded France and won a victory at Agincourt. Between 1417 and 1419 Henry V followed up this success with the conquest of Normandy and the grant of Norman lands to English nobles and lesser men.
In 1420, by the Treaty of Troyes it was agreed that Henry V would marry Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI, King of France and was to be heir to the French throne, and that throne was to descend to his heirs in perpetuity.

King of France, England;
Lord of Ireland;

@ Samples:

(Dec 1369) [32: volume 6; p.643]
< Edward (+1377), King of France [1340-1360; 1369-1377]; of England (Edward III) 1327 >
Edward, par la grace de Dieu, Roi de France et d’Engleterre, &
Seignur d'Irland

(Nov 1374) [32: volume 7; p.49]
Edward, par la grace de Dieu, Roi de France et d’Engleterre, &
Seignour d'Irlande

(Oct 1375) [32: volume 7; p.94]
Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Franciæ & Angliæ, &
Dominus Hiberniæ

(Dec 1402) [40: tome 1; p.46]
< Henry (+1422), King of France [1413-1420]; Regent of France [1420-1422]; King of England (Henry V)1422 >
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et d’Angleterre et
seigneur d'Yrlande






>>> --- 1422-1453 ( Henry [ VI in England ] )

Notes:

1. Henry (1421-1471) succeeded his father, Henry V, King of England, on September 1, 1422 as Henry VI, and on the death (October 21, 1422) of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, King of France, Henry was proclaimed King of France in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Troy. Henry VI, was recognized as King in many parts of France, including possessions of the Dukes of Burgundy and Brittany. Charles VI's son, Charles VII (+1461), for his part, did not fail to claim his inheritance, though he had no proper coronation. Residing at Bourges, he retained the fidelity of the greater part of France, including Berry, Poitou, Lyonnais, Auvergne, and Languedoc.
The victories of Joan of Arc in 1429 led to Charles VII's coronation in Reims and expansion of the French lands he controlled. In 1435, Charles VII made peace with the Duke of Burgundy by the Treaty of Arras (Sept. 21, 1435), which allowed Charles VII's army take Paris. In 1449-1450 a vigorous campaign resulted in the French conquest of Normandy, and by 1451 most of Guyenne fell to the French. By 1453 Henry VI, King of England, had lost all his possessions in France (only the city of Calais remained in the English hands until 1558).


-- the French form

King of France, England;

@ Samples:

(Dec 1422) [11: tome 1; p.120; Doc.# XVII]
< Henry (+1471), King of France Oct 1422; of England (Henry VI) Sep 1422 >
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et d’Angleterre

(Oct 1425) [11: tome 1; p.214; Doc.# LXVII]
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et d’Angleterre

(July 1437) [11: tome 2; p.100; Doc.# CXCVI]
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et d’Angleterre

(Sep 1448) [11: tome 2; p.219; Doc.# CCLXX]
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et d’Angleterre



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks, England;

@ Samples:

(July 1443) [47: tome XXXIV (1873); p.377; Doc.# VII]
< Henry (+1471), King of France Oct 1422; of England (Henry VI) Sep 1422 >
Henricus, Dei gracia, Francorum et Anglie rex

@ Samples [Regents]:

(Dec 1430) [47: tome XXXIV (1873); p.367; Doc.# III]
< John (+1435), Regent of France 1422; Duke of Bedford (May 1414); Earl of Kendal (May 1414), of Richmond (Nov 1414); Count of Maine 1424, of Harcourt, etc. >
Johannes filius, frater et avunculus regum,
dux Bedfordie et Andegavie,
comes Cenomanie, Richemondie, Kandalie et Haricurie

(Oct 1434) [12: tome 2; p.44]
Jehan, gouvernant et regent le royaume de France,
duc de Bedford et d'Anjou,
conte du Maine, de Richemond, de Kendalle et de Harecourt






--- 1494-1498 ( Charles VIII )

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1497) [32: volume 12; p.669]
< Charles VIII (+1498), King of France 1483, of Naples 1495 >
Charles, par la Grace de Dieu, Roy de France

(Feb 1498, n.s.) [60: série 4e; volume 9e (1893); p.78; Doc.# 17]
Charles, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France



-- the Foreign relations form

King of the Franks, Jerusalem, Sicily;

@ Added:

- [1494] Jerusalem, Sicily
In Feb 1494, King Charles VIII of France, who had a claim to the Kingdom of Naples through his paternal grandmother Mary of Anjou, invaded the Kingdom of Naples, expelled King Alfonse II, and was crowned King of Naples.

@ Samples:

(Apr 1495) [61: p.250; Doc.# IX]
< Charles VIII (+1498), King of France 1483; of Naples 1495 >
Carolus, Dei gracia rex Francorum, Hierusalem, Sicilie, etc.

(Dec 1495) [62: tome 1; p.635]
Carolus, Dei gracia, Rex Francorum, Sicilie et Hyerusalem






--- 1498-1501 ( Louis XII )

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(July 1498) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.54]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Louys, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France

(Dec 1499) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.250]
Loys, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(July 1498) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.58]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum rex

(Dec 1499) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.249]
Ludovicus, Dei gratia, Francorum rex

(Apr 1500) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.274]
Ludovicus, Dei gratia, Francorum rex



-- the Foreign relations form

King of the Franks, Jerusalem, Sicily;
Duke of Milan;

@ Added:

- [1498] Milan
Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans and a claimant to the Duchy of Milan, succeeded in France (1498).

@ Samples:

(May 1499) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.227]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia, rex Francorum, Siciliae, Hierusalem,
dux Mediolani






--- 1501-1505 ( Louis XII )

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1502, n.s.) [20: p.334; Doc.# CCLXXX]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Loys par la grace de Dieu roy de France

(Aug 1503) [31: tome 4; p.425-426]
Loys, par la grace de Dieu, Roy de France



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1503) [68: tome XVII (1866); p.135; Doc.# VII]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus Dei gratia Francorum rex



-- the Foreign relations form

King of Franks, Naples, Jerusalem;
Duke of Milan;

@ Replaced:

- [1501] Sicily with Naples
Louis XII, King of France, agreed to divide the Kingdom of Naples with Ferdinand II "the Catholic", King of Aragon (1501).

@ Samples:

(Aug 1502) [65: Band XXVII (1861); IV; p.359]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludouicus, Dei Gratia Francorum, Neapolis et Hierusalem Rex
Mediolanique Dux etc.

(Aug 1505) [65: Band XXVII (1861); IV; p.361]
Ludovicus, Dei Gratia Francorum, Neapolis et Hierusalem Rex ac
Mediolani Dux etc.






--- 1505-1507 ( Louis XII )

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(May 1506) [21: tome 11; p.453; Doc.# 75]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Loys, par la grace de Dieu roi de France



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(Jan 1507, n.s.) [75: p.678]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum



-- the Foreign relations form

King of Franks;
Duke of Milan;

@ Removed:

- Naples, Jerusalem
In 1504 Ferdinand II's army conquered the whole Kingdom of Naples from Louis XII who recognized the loss by the Peace of Blois (1504-1505).

@ Samples:

(June 1507) [67: année 1892; p.171; Doc.# 23] < for Milan >
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum rex et
Mediolani dux, etc.






--- 1507-1526

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(July 1508) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.370]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Loys, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France

(Oct 1512) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.493]
Loys, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France

(Feb 1518, n.s.) [53: p.36]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Françoys par la grace de Dieu, roy de France



-- the Latin form

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(Jan 1508, n.s.) [63: tome XXI (1849); p.361]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorum Rex

(June 1511) [69: tome IV (1903-1907); p.251; Doc.# CLXXXVII]
Ludovicus, Dei gratia, Francorum rex

(Nov 1516) [5: tome 26 (1888-1889); p.109; Doc.# 1]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Franciscus, Dei gratia, Francorum rex



-- the Foreign relations form

King of the Franks;
Duke of Milan;
Lord of Genoa;

@ Samples:

(Nov 1510) [64: tome II; p.80]
< Louis (+1515), Duke of Orléans [1466-1498], of Milan [1499-1512]; King of France (Louis XII) 1498, of Naples [1501-1504] >
Ludovicus, Dei gratia Francorom Rex,
Dux Mediolani,
Genuæ Dominus &c.

(Oct 1513) [72: tomus XXXI (1877); p.38; Doc.# 89]
Ludovicus Dei gratia Francorum rex,
dux Mediolani,
dominus Genuæ

(Aug 1517) [71: volume VII (1908); p.487]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Franciscus Dei gratia Francorum rex,
Mediolani dux et
Genue dominus

(Aug 1523) [73: Bind III (1861-1865); p.110; Doc.# 5]
Franciscvs, Dei gratia Francorum rex,
Mediolani dux et
Genue dominus

@ Samples [Regents]:

(June 1525) [32: volume 14; p.37]
< Louise of Savoy (+1531), the mother of King Francis I >
Ludovica Francorum Regis Christianissimi Mater,
Ducissa Angelismæ, Andegaviæ, & Nemosi, necnon
Cenomaniæ & Gyenii Comitissa,
Regens in Francia in Absentia Carissimi ac Dilectissimi Domini & Filii nostri Francisci Dei gratiâ, Francorum Regis






--- 1526-1528

-- the French form

King of France;

@ Samples:

(June 1527) [74: tome XXII (1889); p.581; Doc.# III]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Françoys, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France



-- the Foreign relations form

King of the Franks;
Lord of Genoa;

@ Removed:

- [1526] Milan
By the Treaty of Madrid King Francis I renounced claims to Milan (Jan 1526).

@ Samples:

(Sep 1527) [32: volume 14; p.231]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Franciscus Dei gratiâ Francorum Rex, &
Januæ Dominus

(Aug 1528) [32: volume 14; p.266]
Franciscus, Dei gratiâ Francorum Rex &
Januæ Dominus

(Sep 1528) [73: Bind III (1861-1865); p.146; Doc.# 29]
Franciscvs, Dei gratia Francorum rex et
Genuæ dominus






--- 1528-1574

-- the French form

@ Samples:

(May 1552) [53: p.38]
< Henry II (+1559), King of France 1547 >
Henry, par la grace de Dieu, roy de France

(July 1559) [4: tome 14; Doc.# 1]
< Francis II (+1560), King of France 1559 >
François, par la grâce de Dieu roy de France



-- the Foreign relations form

King of the Franks;

@ Removed:

- Genoa

@ Samples:

(Apr 1529) [73: Bind III (1861-1865); p.155; Doc.# 36]
< Francis I (+1547), King of France 1515; Duke of Milan >
Franciscvs, Dei gratia Francorum rex

(Jan 1530, n.s.) [32: volume 14; p.360]
Franciscus, Dei Gratiâ, Francorum Rex

(Sep 1573) [64: tome II; p.608]
< Charles IX (+1574), King of France 1560 >
Carolus, Dei gratia Francorum Rex

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Jan 1572, n.s.) [52: tome XXXVIII / série II, tome XVI (1891); p.418]
< Mary I (+1587), Queen of Scotland [1542-1567]; Duchess of Touraine, etc.; ~ (1) 1558 Francis II (+1560), King of France 1559; >
Marie par la grâce de Dieu Royne d'Escosse, douairière de France,
duchesse de Touraine,
comtesse de Poictou et de Chaulmont en Bassigny,
dame d'Espernay et de Saincte Manehould

(Jan 1581, n.s.) [51: tome V; p.185]
Marie par la grâce de Dieu Royne d'Escosse, douairyère de France,
duchesse de Touraine,
comtesse de Poictou, Chaulmont en Bassigny, Vermandois et Senliz,
dame d'Espernay, Vytry et Sainct-Menehoult






--- 1574-1589 ( Henry III )

King of France, Poland;

@ Added:

- [1574] Poland
Henry (+1589), who had been elected King of Poland since 1573, succeeded his brother Charles IX in France (1574).

@ Samples:

(Dec 1575) [46: p.295; Doc.# CXV]
< Henry (+1589), King of Poland 1573, of France (Henry III) 1574 >
Henry, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Pologne

(Dec 1577) [4: tome 14; p.270; Doc.# 14]
Henri, par la grâce de Dieu roy de France et de Pologne

(Dec 1578) [4: tome 14; p.350; Doc.# 98]
Henry par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Pologne






>>> --- 1589-1590 ( Charles "X" )

Notes:
1. In 1589, on King Henry III's death , the Catholic League proclaimed Cardinal Charles of Bourbon, a son of Duke Charles IV of Vendôme, King of France, while still a prisoner and in the castle of Chinon. He was recognized as Charles X by the Parliament of Paris on 21 November 1589. The Catholic League issued coins in his name from August 1589 to his death in May 1590. Charles, however, renounced the Royal title and recognized his nephew Henry IV, whose succession was disputed by the Catholic League.

King of France;

@ Samples:

(Dec 1589) [28: p.1]
< Charles of Bourbon (+1590), Cardinal, Archbishop of Rouen; a claimant to the Crown of France 1589 >
Charles par la grace de Dieu Roy de France






--- 1589-1789

King of France, Navarra;

@ Replaced:

- [1589] Poland with Navarra
Henry of Bourbon (+1610), King of Navarra, succeeded as King of France to his distant male relative Henry III, who was elected King of Poland (1589).

@ Samples:

(Aug 1589) [4: tome 15; p.3; Doc.# 3]
< Henry IV (+1610), King of Navarra (Henry III) 1572; of France 1589 >
Nous Henri, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre

(Apr 1633) [5: tome 25 (1887); p.127]
< Louis XIII (+1643), King of France 1610 >
Louis, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre

(Jan 1690) [5: tome 23 (1883); p.503]
< Louis XIV (+1715), King of France 1643 >
Louis, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre

(June 1752) [5: tome 24 (1884-1885); p.505]
< Louis XV (+1774), King of France 1715 >
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre

(Mar 1789) [54: tome I (1894); p.296; Doc.# CXCIX]
< Louis XVI (+1793), King of France [1774-1792] >
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Feb 1730) [41: tome LII (1920); p.28]
< Louis-Henry of Condé (+1740), Duke of Bourbon >
Louis-Henry, duc de Bourbon,
prince du sang,
grand maître des Mines et Minières de France

(1788) [42: p.186; Doc.# 103 bis]
< Louis-Joseph (+1818), Prince of Condé >
Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé,
Prince du Sang,
Pair et Grand-Maître de France,
Lieutenant-général des armées du Roy,
Chevalier de ses ordres,
Gouverneur et Lieutenant général des provinces de Bourgogne et Bresse,
Colonel Général de l'Infanterie françoise et Etrangére






--- 1789-1792 ( Louis XVI )

King of the French;

@ Replaced:

- [1789] France, Navarra with the French
The new government brought by the French Revolution of 1789 ended the absolute monarchy in France and changed the royal style (1789).

@ Samples:

(Dec 1789) [48: tome 1e; 472]
< Louis XVI (+1793), King of France [1774-1792] >
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu et par la loi constitutionnelle de l'etat, roi des Français

(Sep 1791) [35: année 1904; p.33 ]
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu et par la Loi constitutionnelle de l'Etat, Roi des François









Interregnum: the First Republic (1792-1804)

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

("26 Messidor, XI Year of the Republic"" / 1802 ) [42: p.358; Doc.# 278]
< Napoleon I Bonaparte (+1821), the 1st Consul of the French Republic [1799-1804]; Emperor of France [1804-1814; 1814-1815] >
Bonaparte, 1er consul de la république









The First Empire (1804-1814)

--- 1804-1814 ( Napoleon I )

Notes:
1. In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte, Premier Consul of France, was declared Emperor of France.
2. Emperor Napoleon I became Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, and Mediator of the Swiss Confederation in 1809.


Emperor of the French;
King of Italy;

@ Added:

- [1805] Italy
Emperor Napoleon I was declared King of Italy (1805).

@ Samples:

(Nov 1804) [55: tome I; p.199]
< Napoleon I Bonaparte (+1821), the 1st Consul of the French Republic [1799-1804]; Emperor of France [1804-1814; 1814-1815] >
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions de la République, Empereur des Français

(Aug 1807) [59: série II; tome IX; p.729]
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions, Empereur des Français,
Roi d'Italie et
Protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin

(Mar 1813) [7: p.312]
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions, empereur des Français,
roi d'Italie,
protecteur de la confédération du Rhin,
médiateur de la confédération suisse, etc. , etc., etc.









The Kingdom of France ( 1814-1814 )

--- 1814-1814 ( Louis XVIII )

King of France, Navarra;

@ Samples:

(Sep 1814] [37: part 2; p.41; Doc.# XII]
< Louis XVIII (+1824), King of France [1814-1814; 1815-1824] >
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre









The First Empire ( 1815-1815 )

--- 1814-1815 ( Napoleon I )

Emperor of the French;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1815) [55: tome I; p.125] [10: tome 1; p.163]
< Napoleon I Bonaparte (+1821), the 1st Consul of the French Republic [1799-1804]; Emperor of France [1804-1814; 1814-1815] >
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions de l'Empire, Empereur des Français, etc. etc.

(Apr 1815) [10: tome 2; p.48]
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions, Empereur des Français









The Kingdom of France ( 1815-1848 )

--- 1815-1830 ( Louis XVIII; Charles X )

King of France, Navarra;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1815] [37: part 2; p.45; Doc.# XIV]
< Louis XVIII (+1824), King of France [1814-1814; 1815-1824] >
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre

(Aug 1824] [37: part 2; p.93; Doc.# XXXIII]
Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre

(Mar 1829) [59: série II; tome LVII (1884); p.292]
< Charles X (+1836), King of France [1824-1830] >
Charles, par la grâce de Dieu Roi de France et de Navarre






--- 1830-1848 ( Louis-Philip )

King of the French;

- [1830] France, Navarre with the French
The new government brought by the Revolution of 1830 introduced the new royal style (1830).

@ Samples:

(May 1832) [6: p.1]
< Louis-Philip (+1850), King of France [1830-1848] >
Louis-Philippe, Roi des Français

(Mar 1847] [37: part 2; p.164; Doc.# XLVIII]
Louis-Philippe, Roi des Français









Interregnum: The Second Republic ( 1848-1852 )









The Second Empire ( 1852-1870 )


--- 1852-1870 ( Napoleon III )

Emperor of the French;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1853] [37: part 2; p.232; Doc.# LI]
< Napoleon III (+1873), Emperor [1852-1870] >
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et la volonté nationale, Empereur des Français

(July 1870) [56: série II; tome XIV; année 1870; partie II; p.29]
Napoléon, par la grâce de Dieu et la volonté nationale, empereur des Français










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