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Main Page: Titles of European hereditary rulers


Last updated: Oct 4, 2009

 

 

 

Serbia, Montenegro, Yugoslavia

 

 

 

Bibliography.

 

1. Службене новине Краљевине Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца / Службене Новине Краљевине Југославије (Београд : Државна штампарија).

2. Глас Црногорца.

3. Зборник закона и уредба (Београд).

4. Wenzel, Gusztáv. Magyar diplomácziai emlékek az Anjou-korból. = Acta extera Andegavensia (Budapest : A M. Tud. Akademia könyvkiado-hivatalaban , 3 vols, 1874-76) [Monumenta Hungariae historica].

5. Милева, Алимпић. Живот и рад генерала Ранка Алимпића (Београд : 1892).

6. Ристић, Јован. Дипломатска историја Србије за време српских ратова за ослобођење и независност 1875-1878 (Београд : 1896-1898).

7. Српска академија наука и уметности. Годишњак (Београд).

8. Миловановиђ, Аца. Општина (Београд : 1901).

9. За Краља и Отаџбину. Историјски Догађаји 1и 2 априла 1893 у Српској краљевској престонице (Београд : 1893).

10. Krstić, Branislav; Stepanović, Ljiljana. Avio-saobraćaj u turbulencijama: neki elementi za formiranje vazduhoplovne politike (Beograd : Goragraf, 2004).

11. Ђорђевић, Владан. Крај једне династије, прилози за историју Србије (Београд : 1893).

12. Scrinia Slavonica. Godišnjak Podružnice za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje (Slavonski Brod, Croatia).

13. Jaвор. Лист за забаву, поуку и књижевност (Нови Сад).

14. Crnogorski glasnik. Glasilo Nacionalne zajednice Crnogoraca Hrvatske.

 

 

 

 

 

 

First (Christian) names.

 

Alexander -> Александар / Aleksandar;

Daniel -> Данило;

George -> Ђорђе / Đorđe;

Milosh -> Милош;

Michael -> Михаило;

Nicholas -> Никола;

Peter -> Петар / Petar;

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serbia (Србија)

 

Overview.

 

In the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks conquered the medieval state of Serbia.

 

In 1804, George "the Black" Petrovich (Петровић) / "Karageorge” (Карађорђе / Karađorđe) (+1817) led the Serbs in their insurrection against the Ottoman Turks. In 1808, he was proclaimed hereditary chief of the Serbs.

His descendents became known as the House of Karogeorgevich (Карађорђевић / Karađorđević).

The Treaty of Bucharest (1812) forced the Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy. However, in 1813, the Ottomans returned, and George "the Black" fled.

 

In 1815, Milosh Obrenovich (Обреновић) began a new and successful rebellion against the Ottomans. In 1817, he procured the assassination of his rival George "the Black" and became Prince of Serbia. The Ottomans were unable to challenge his power, and the Convention of Ackerman of 1826, the Treaty of Adrianople of 1829, and finally, the Hatt-i Sharif of 1830 recognized the Serbian state with Milosh Obrenovich as its hereditary Prince under the Ottoman suzerainty.

 

In 1878, at the Congress of Berlin Serbia obtained European recognition of its full independence from the Ottoman Empire.

 

In 1882, Serbia was declared Kingdom.

 

Notes:

1. The House of Obrenovich ruled Serbia in 1817-1842 and 1858-1903; the House of Karogeorgevich ruled Serbia (and then Yugoslavia) in 1804-1813, 1842-1858, 1903-1941, and 1945-1945.

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1817-1859

 

The Serbian Prince;

 

@ Samples:

 

(Apr 1839) [3: I (1839-1840); p.16]

< Milosh I Obrenovich (I) (+1860), Prince of Serbia [1817-1839; Dec 1858-1860] >

Милошъ Обреновићъ, Князъ Србскiй

 

< Milan Obrenovich (II) (+July 1839), Prince of Serbia June 1839 >

 

(June 1840) [3: II (1840-1844); p.7]

< Michael Obrenovich (III) (+1868), Prince of Serbia [1839-1842; 1860-1868] >

Михаилъ М. Обреновићъ Князъ Србскiй

 

(Jan 1845) [3: III (1845-1846); p.1]

< Alexander Karogeorgevich (+1885), Prince of Serbia [1842-1858]; a son of George "the Black" >

Александеръ, Карађорђевићъ Князъ Србскiй

 

(Dec 1859) [3: XII (1859); p.112]

< Milosh I Obrenovich (I) (+1860), Prince of Serbia [1817-1839; Dec 1858-1860] >

Милошъ Обреновићъ Првый Князъ Србскiй

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1859-1882

 

The Serbian Prince;

 

@ Samples:

 

(Oct 1863) [3: XVI (1863); p.106]

< Michael Obrenovich (III) (+1868), Prince of Serbia [1839-1842; 1860-1868] >

Михаилъ М. Обреновићъ III. по милости Божiой и вольи народа Князъ Србскiй

 

(Mar 1868) [3: XXI (1868); p.8]

Михаилъ М. Обреновићъ III. по милости Божiой и вольи народа Князъ Србскiй

 

(July 1878) [6: књига II; рат II; p.256]

< Milan Obrenovich (IV) (+1901), Prince of Serbia (King of Serbia as Milan I 1882) [1868-1889] >

Милан М. Обреновић IV. по милости Божијој и вољи народа Књаз Српски

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1882-1918

 

King of Serbia;

 

@ Replaced:

 

- [1882] "The Serbian Prince" with "King of Serbia"

Milan (+1901), Prince of Serbia, was proclaimed King (1882).

 

@ Samples:

 

(June 1884) [8: књига I; p.4]

< Milan Obrenovich (IV) (+1901), Prince of Serbia (King of Serbia as Milan I 1882) [1868-1889] >

Ми Милан Први. по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краљ Србије

 

(May 1893) [9: p.159]

< Alexander I Obrenovich (+1903), King of Serbia 1889 >

Ми Александар I. по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краљ Србије

 

(Oct 1897) [11: књига I; p.32]

Ми Александар I. по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краљ Србије

 

(Feb 1913) [10: p.116; Prilozi; Doc.# 7.1]

< Peter I Karogeorgevich (+1921), King of Serbia 1903, of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1918 >

Ми Петар I по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краљ Србије

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yugoslavia ( Југославија )

 

Overview.

 

In 1918, after World War I Serbia united with Montenegro and the former Austrian-Hungarian provinces of Croatia and Slovenia, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was established.

 

In 1929, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia to emphasize the unity of the country.

 

On April 6, 1941, German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces attacked Yugoslavia. After the conquest and dismemberment of Yugoslavia, German occupation forces set up a puppet government in a much-diminished Serbia.

The Independent State of Croatia was established as a pro-Axis state, ruled by the militia known as the Ustaše. German troops occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as part of Serbia and Slovenia, while other parts of the country were occupied by Bulgaria, Hungary and Italy.

 

After World War II, Yugoslavia was restored.

On November 29, 1945, while still in exile, King Peter II was deposed by Yugoslavia's Constituent Assembly. However, he refused to abdicate.

On January 31, 1946, Yugoslavia was proclaimed the Federal Republic.

 

In June 1991, the breakaway of Slovenia and Croatia led to the end of the old Yugoslavia, which by the end of 1992 had consisted only of Serbia and Montenegro. 

In March 2002, the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to reform Yugoslavia in favour of a new, much weaker form of federation called Serbia and Montenegro. By order of Yugoslav Federal Parliament on February 4, 2003, Yugoslavia, at least nominally, ceased to exist.

On June 3 and June 5, 2006, respectively, Montenegro and Serbia declared independence, thereby ending the Yugoslav state.

 

 

 

--- 1918-1929

 

King of the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes;

 

@ Samples:

 

< Peter I Karogeorgevich (+1921), King of Serbia 1903, of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1918 >

 

(Dec 1921) [12: 2006; 6; p.311f]

< Alexander I Karogeorgevich (+1934), King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1921, of Yugoslavia 1929 >

Mi Aleksandar I, po milosti Božjoj i volji Narodnoj Kralj Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca

 

@ Samples [Regents]:

 

(June 1921) [1: година III (1921), број 142 а; 28.6]

< Alexander (+1934), Regent of Serbia (the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1918 ) 1914; King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1921, of Yugoslavia 1929 >

У име Његовог Величанства Петра I по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краља Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца

Ми Александар, наследник престола

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1929-1941

 

King of Yugoslavia;

 

@ Replaced:

 

- [1929] the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes with Yugoslavia

To emphasize the unity of the country King Alexander I changed its official name to Yugoslavia (Oct 1929).

 

@ Samples:

 

(Mar 1930) [1: година XIII (1931) број 42-XI; 24. 2]

< Alexander I Karogeorgevich (+1934), King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1921, of Yugoslavia 1929 >

Ми Александар I. по милости Божјој и вољи Народној Краљ Југославије

 

@ Samples [Regents]:

 

(May 1937) [1: година XIX (1937); број 116-XXV; 26. 5]

< Paul Karogeorgevich (+1976), Prince of Yugoslavia; with Radenko Stankovic, Ivo N. Perovic; Regents of Yugoslavia in 1934-1941 for Peter II Karogeorgevich (+1970), King of Yugoslavia [1934-1941; 1945-1945] >

У име Његовог Величанства Петра II. по милости Божјој и вољи народној Краља Југославије Краљевски намесници

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1941-1944 ( Interregnum : the German occupation )

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1945-1945

 

King of Yugoslavia;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montenegro ( Црна Гора )

 

Overview.

 

In the Middle ages the lands of the modern Montenegro, were known as Duklja and Zeta.

 

Since the 16th century the country was ruled by Vladikas (Orthodox Prince-Bishops) of Cetinje.

 

With Vladika Daniel I, who ruled from 1696 to 1735, the succession of the Vladika's office was made hereditary in his family, Petrovich-Njegosh (Петровић Његош). The office passed ordinarily from uncle to nephew, because the Vladikas could not marry.

 

In 1852, Vladika Daniel, who succeeded in 1851, secularized the office of the ruler of Montenegro, and became a secular Prince of Montenegro.

 

In 1910, Montenegro was proclaimed Kingdom.

 

Late in 1915, during World War I, Austro-German forces overrun Montenegro.

 

In November 1918, a national assembly declared the King of Montenegro deposed and effected the union of Montenegro with Serbia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1852- ~ 1882

 

Prince & Lord of Montenegro, the Brda;

 

@ Samples:

 

(Apr 1855) [14: godina VII (Nov-Dec 2006); broj 42; p.24]

< Daniel I (+1860), Vladika of Montenegro 1851-1852; Prince of Montenegro 1852 >

Данил Први књаз и господар слободне Црнегоре и Брдах

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- ~ 1882-1910

 

Prince & Lord of Montenegro;

 

@ Samples:

 

(June 1889) [13: 1890; p.106]

< Nicholas (+1921), Prince (King 1910) of Montenegro [1860-1915/1918] >

Ми Никола I, по милости Божјој, књаз и господар Црне Горе

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- 1910-1915/1918

 

King & Lord of Montenegro;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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